For equipment for charging an electric vehicle or a plug-in hybrid, you need to lay a line of electricity or use an already existing one. Different types of electrical outlets are available, from which you can charge the electric car by a portable charge at different speeds. It is possible and stationary installation of charging equipment.
Schuko outlet (household outlet) for portable stations.
For plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles with a battery capacity of up to 23 kW / h, a household outlet may be sufficient. The standard chargers charge 2.3-2.7kW / hour is about 160km for 10:00 charging. ChargeU chargers have the ability to adjust the power from 1.4kW to 3.7kW in increments of 0.23kW. This is equivalent to a run from 95km to 250km for 10:00 charging. Tesla electric cars consume more energy (kilowatt) per 1 kilometer of mileage, mileage will be less by about 1/3 for a similar power consumption.
Schuko 16A power connection specifications
Copper monolithic (laid in the walls) or stranded (laid out from the outside) cable with a cross-section of 3×2.5mm2. The thinner the section of the wire of the wiring, the less power it can transmit. Choose high-quality sockets to reduce the vio- gidity of their overheating. They should be rated at 16 amperes.
Schuko outlets are not very reliable with regular loading. If the outlet is only used to charge the car, it is worth replacing the power connector of the same power (calculated for a current of 16 A, equal to 3.7kW). The plug of your portable station changes to power 16A. For charging from household outlets the adapter is purchased.
Simultaneous connection of the electric vehicle with other devices (kettle, iron, etc.) on the line is only available if the power regulation of the electric motor charging is possible. The total load should not exceed 3.7kW.
How to calculate the load on the power grid read here.
In the case of stationary use of ChargeU portable stations, direct connection to the distribution box or panel automatics is possible. The equipment provides both stationary mounting and temporary fixing of the case and cable station in holder.
Power connectors (industrial) for portable stations 32-40 amperes
If you have available power more than 3.7kW (16 Amp current), you can equip one or several places (at home, at work, etc.) for charging from power “sockets”. Charging from them is probably one portable station. For example, 25 Amps are available, it is worth installing a 32-Ampere power connector and charging faster at a more powerful station. The charging speed of single-phase sockets will be approximately 500km in 10 hours. From the three-phase connectors it is possible to load up to 1500 km in 10 hours. Of course, as long as there are not many electric vehicles with this battery capacity, most are not needed. The Tesla electric cars will have a lower mileage of approximately 300km and 900km, respectively.
Pay attention to the types of such connectors:
Blue connectors are single phase 230V (220V). To them directly connect single-phase stations or three-phase stations, through the adapter from blue to red connector.
In this case, single-phase and three-phase electric vehicles will be charged in one phase.
Red connectors are three-phase 400V (380V). To them directly connect three-phase stations or single-phase, through the adapter from red to blue.
In this case, single-phase electric vehicles will be charged in one, and three-phase in three phases.
Such connectors are designed for different power. The larger their size, the greater the power can transmit. Select only high-quality connectors, they will reliably transfer the required power without overheating and will serve longer.
Maximum power that most power connectors can transmit: 10kW – blue single phase, 30kW – red three-phase.
Power connectors can be found at service stations, sinks, gas stations, industrial facilities and parking lots. Sometimes the establishments install such connectors for charging the electric cars of visitors as a budget and quick solution.
In the future, the power connector can be replaced by a stationary or portable charging with a direct connection.
Connecting stationary chargers and portable stationary
The stationary charging equipment includes wall or ground mounting.
If the station has a built-in cable for connection, it is carried out through special terminal blocks in the distribution box or directly to the power automatics in the switchgear.
There are stations that connect to them in their outer case. The inner case protects the electronics from weather conditions. Connection is carried out through terminal blocks marked with special markings.
The specifications for connecting the stationary equipment are indicated in the instructions to it and may differ.
The stationary equipment has a built-in Type 2 electrical connector, for which it is necessary to have a separate cable. There are modifications with built-in cable and type Type 1, Type2, Tesla US connectors.
Read more about connector types here.
Read more about the electrical connection of equipment here.
The installation of the line should be carried out by professional specialists, observing all norms. Incorrect connection of equipment may result in its failure. An independent connection can lead to damage to your health and property.
Crossing the wire
The recommended cross section of the wire will be unhindered to transmit the desired power without loss of voltage. Use the following table to select the required wire cross-section:
Current strength (power) / Minimum / Recommended
16 amps (3.7kW) 2.5mm2 / 2.5mm2
25 amps (5,7kW) 4mm2 / 4mm2
32 amperes (7,2kW) 4mm2 / 6mm2
40 amps (9.2kW) 6mm2 / 10mm2
The data is given for lines up to 50 meters in length. If your line is 50 to 100 meters, use the wire of the next section.
Choose the cable provided for your type of laying. Placed in the ground, fixed to the cable, wound in the coil – there will be different types of cables, which differ in their properties. Additionally, you should use protective hollow or channel systems for laying electricity.
Degree of protection
Sockets and power connectors have an IP44 protection level and can not be installed in open space. Consequently, the point of connection of the portable station should be under the cover which makes it impossible to directly penetrate the water. The same applies to adapters and extensions.
See labeling on the body of the station. Typically, in standard units, the degree does not exceed IP54 and can not be used outdoors in any weather conditions.
The degree of protection of the ChargeU – IP67 portable charger case is possible and can be used in rain and snow, but not in the constant presence in water.
Read more about the degree of protection here.
The line of electricity must be equipped with additional protection. The connection point must have a separate automatic circuit breaker (automatic) of the same or greater (next in nominal current) and a differential relay (differential) with a sensitivity of 30mA Type A (Recommended by the developer ChargeU). Alternatively, a differential automatic machine (2 in one device) may be installed.
The given connection specification is basic, so when connecting a specific model of the equipment, refer to its instructions, or to the Representative Office of the manufacturer in Ukraine.
To lay the mains, consider that the charging of an electric vehicle requires grounding. This is one of the protection circuits, and in some stations it is the only one. If the existing line is laid out without ground, consult a qualified technician for supplying a separate line of protective grounding or rebuilding the existing line. The possibility of charging without grounding in some portable stations and just as ChargeU exists in an emergency, with all safety requirements.
More information on Grounding is available here.