An electric vehicle can become a source of danger to life, health or property. Vendors of electric cars usually do not deal with the explanation of potentially dangerous situations associated with its use. On the other hand, sellers of dangerous self-made chargers use a low safety culture of the population. To prevent negative consequences, we will try to understand the basis of this danger.
Full battery power
Lithium-ion batteries represent a particular danger when they are fully charged. Employees of rescue services in Europe are taught how to turn off the battery power, in which places it is forbidden to use the tool. A powerful explosion can end the situation when rescuers cut the body, especially it is dangerous in the rain. Some manufacturers of electric vehicles have provided the possibility to charge the car by 80% or to regulate to what limit to charge the battery.
Schuko household sockets (euronets) withstand a maximum power of 3.7 kW / h and are labeled 16A. There are also weaker ones, calculated for 2.2 kW / hour. On the market you can find samples of low-quality manufacturers with the marking 16A, but they can not stand even 2.2 kW / hour.
The Schuko outlet was developed in Germany in 1930. Technologically, they are obsolete and unreliable. Even high-quality household outlets weaken contact over the years, causing overheating of the charger plug. Be careful, choose the charging power that will match the power supply. Invite a professional electrician to determine the maximum power for charging an electric vehicle.
To replace the power outlet with a safe power cord, click here.
The line from which the electric car can be powered may be weak or several consumers (electrical appliances) may be connected to it, which can cause the line to overload and cause a fire in the absence of a protective automatics. Also, the cause of a fire can be a poor contact in each of the connections starting from the switchboard. Invite an electrician to check the reliability of the electrical network.
How to equip the place of charging please find out here.
Carriers and Extension Cords
Charging through carriers and extension cords in most regular chargers is expressly forbidden. Almost all of them can not transmit more than 2.2 kW / hour although they can have the marking 16A. Due to the use of a long extension cord in 20 meters, there may be voltage loss and make it impossible to charge voltage-sensitive electric vehicles (Tesla, Mercedes B-Class, Toyota Rav4). If the charging power control function is available, contact an electrician to determine the power limit of the extension cord.
Degree of protection
The charger has a degree of protection (IP-marked) and explains the possibility of use in various weather conditions. Use of equipment in a non-conforming environment can cause electric shock, fire, damage to the electronics of the electric vehicle. Most standard chargers have a degree of protection corresponding to the charging conditions only indoors or under a canopy.
Public charging stations are often installed in open areas not provided for different weather conditions. They often do not have an elementary shelter in case of rain or snow. Sockets or power connectors from which are charged by portable stations should also be under elementary cover especially in the rain. Voltage in red connectors 380-400V is dangerous for life and health.
Read more about the degree of protection here.
Homemade Battery Charger
There are many specialized forums where enthusiasts are discussing how to solder the charger from the ready-made parts. Such experimental things are provided for their own use at their own peril and risk, since the sellers of such details do not bear any responsibility. Most of them are ordered through Chinese online stores. In our country this quickly evolved into a cottage industry. Having soldered several cheap boards in the case, usually similar to ChargeU, enthusiasts are setting up a sale of homemade products.
Read more about the homemade battery charger here.
When using any electrical or electric mobile adapters or adapters, it is necessary to remember the limitation of their use in the open space. Usually charging with them during high humidity, rain or snow is strictly prohibited. On public charging stations with a built-in Type 2 connector, only a cable of the appropriate type (Type 1 – Type 2 or Type 2 – Type 2) may be used. No self-made adapters, tees and devices that have disconnected locations are very dangerous.
Repair or re-equipment of the battery
Some electric vehicle batteries have a non-dismountable body. Most batteries do not provide for their repair or replacement of cells. At the revealed defects on firm service completely change the battery to the new one. Repeat the factory technology on each service is impossible therefore in Europe there is no practice of their repair. Usually they are simply recycled. A similar threat lies in the conversion of gasoline to electric vehicles.
Resetting the battery
Illegal service appeared in Ukraine in mid-2017. Special equipment through the service connector of dealers reflash the battery, after which it shows 100% capacity and increases the mileage forecast. Cell charge control units begin to transmit more power than is provided than cause the battery to overload. Over time, the on-board computer starts to correct the charge and the capacitance indicator returns to the natural value. During this time, sellers of used cars have time to get rid of it. Such manipulations with the battery can cause explosion or irreversible processes that can cause a significant part of its capacity to be lost.
If you are not sure of the reliability of the wiring, the origin of the charger, the conditions of use, install a reliable fire system with the ability to extinguish in case of fire or explosion of the battery.