What is 220V, 380V or the actuall value is 230V and 400V

What is 220V, 380V or the actuall value is 230V and 400V

with 49 Comments

According to modern standards, the voltage in household electrical systems should correspond to 230 Volts. 400 Volts – the standard voltage for industrial electrical networks. In the USSR, the voltage in the electricity networks corresponded to 220 and 380 Volts. Until now, such inscriptions can be found on sockets and equipment.
To understand what 380V (400V) is, you first need to figure out what is 220V (230V).
From the power plant to the residential area, the current is supplied via electrolytes at extremely high voltages. In the house, electricity comes from the transformer substation, which converts the high-voltage network in to 400V.
Generally, initially industrial network, in most cases, is a three-phase (400 V) and to the apartment or private house lay a three-phase network, which then diverge into three single-phase (in most cases this happens). So, we have two options for organizing electrical wiring. We can lay the one phase wiring to the end user, 230V or all 3 phases, 400V. So what’s the difference?

Three-phase wiring consists of 4 or 5 wires – 3 phases, neutral and ground (if available), single-phase wiring consists of 2 or 3 wires – one phase, neutral and ground (if available). Voltage 400V operates in a 3-phase network between any two (of three) phases. The voltage in 230V acts between one of the three phases and zero.
So, if we get electric current in three wires at once, then this is 400V, if we get electric current through one wire, it’s 230V (not taking into account zero and ground, of course).
Total: in both types of wiring there is a neutral conductor wire, in relation to neutral in all three phases, the voltage is 220V (230V), and the ratio of these phases to each other is 380V (400V). This is due to the fact that each of the three phases is slightly offset relative to each other by 120 degrees. But this is another topic.
Of course, in most cases, three phases are taken and divided between several consumers, in that case each of these consumers uses one phase, 220V (230V). 380V (400V) is used for the for industrial purposes, where higher capacities are required or there is special equipment capable of feeding from three phases.

Also, for consumption of 3 phases, the usual socket is not enough, in any case, special power connectors are required to withstand the required power and having the necessary number of contacts on the plug. Power connectors differ in voltage, number of phases and current. For example: 16 Ampere, 32 Ampere, 63 Ampere, 125 Ampere, which are able to withstand the necessary current.
Examples of using three-phase wiring for domestic purposes are present, often in private homes, where more energy is required and there is a large number of different electrical equipment.
Electric vehicles are capable of receiving current in one phase or in three phases. It depends on the type of inverter (on-board charger). Electric transport in the EU is mostly equipped with three-phase connectors. Some cars take all three phases and part only one of three. Hybrid electric vehicles are also usually single-phase. Cars from the America are also single-phase, as household and industrial electric systems are single-phase (household voltage – 120V, industrial voltage – 240V).
If you have three phases and a single-phase electromotive, you can only charge by one phase. To do this, you can take one phase out of three or divide the phases into charging three electric vehicles simultaneously. Three-phase lines often end with industrial connectors. You can use them as sockets for a portable station. This allows you to charge one station in different places. For permanent connection it is worthwhile to use junction boxes and connection via terminal blocks according to the electrical connection scheme specified in the manual.

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      why there is 440 in phase to phase, 380 in phase to neutral and 230 in phase to earth? are these normal?

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